Copernicium

Copernicium

In honor of scientist and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), the discovering team have suggested the name 'copernicium' with the element symbol 'Cp' for the new element 112. Copernicium atoms have 112 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.32.18.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral copernicium is Rn.5f 14.6d 10.7s 2 (a guess based upon that of mercury) and the term symbol of copernicium is 1 S 0 (a guess based upon guessed electronic structure).

Copernicium is an artificially produced element and was synthesized in 1996. It has many unstable and synthetic isotopes

History and Discovery

Copernicium is a synthetic element. It was created for the first time in 1996 by Victor Ninov and Sigurd Hoffmann who worked at GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near Darmstadt, Germany [1]. A single atom of copernicium with mass number of 277 was synthesized by bombarding a lead-208 nuclei with accelerated zinc-70 nuclei. In 2000, another atom of copernicium was synthesized at GSI. The most stable isotope of copernicium has a half life of around 30 seconds. The element has been named after an astronomer, Nicolaus Copernicus and has the element symbol Cp.

Copernicium

Periodic Table ClassificationGroup 12
Period 7
State at 20CGas (predicted)
ColorUnknown
Electron Configuration[Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 (predicted)
Electron Number112
Proton Number112
Electron Shell2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 18, 2 (predicted)
Density23.70 g.cm-3 at 20°C (predicted)
Atomic number112
Atomic Mass285.00 g.mol -1
Electronegativity according to PaulingN/A

Occurrence

Copernicium is an artificially produced element. And does not exists in nature.

Physical Characteristics

Copernicium exists in gaseous form at standard temperature and pressure. The closed shell electron configuration allows this metal to exist in gaseous form [2]. It is categorized as the first metal to exist in the form of gas. It is part of the d-block elements and is considered as both transition and post-transition element. It belongs to the group 12 of the periodic table and have various distinct features than other members of its group. In solid form, copernicium is the heaviest element in its group and have a density of 23. g/cm3.

CoperniciumCopernicium periodic table

Chemical Characteristics

Copernicium is considered as one of the most highly radioactive element. It can react with gold and exhibit a highly volatile behavior. Copernicium is resistant to oxidation and requires specific conditions for its oxidation unlike the other members of its group. At room temperature, it is very volatile and have very weak metallic bonds. copernicium can form metallic bonds with silver, gold, copper, platinum and palladium. Most of the compounds of copernicium ions are unstable. In aqueous solution, copernicium has two oxidation states, +2 and +4. Copernicium reacts with cyanide to form stable compound Cn (CN)2.

Significance and Uses

  • Copernicium isotope, CP-283 have been used in the discoveries of other elements, including livermorium and flerovium [3].

Health effects

Copernicium is a poisonous gas. However, little is known about its health hazards.

Isotopes of Copernicium

There are no naturally occurring or stable isotopes of copernicium. There are seven radioactive and artificially produced isotopes of copernicium, with mass numbers ranging from 281 to 286 and 277. The heavier isotopes are more stable as compared to lighter ones. Copernicium-285 is the most stable isotope and have a half-life of 29 seconds, while copernicium-283 has a half life of only 4 seconds. The light isotopes, except for copernicium-277, are synthesized by direct fusion between fusion of two lighter nuclei, while heavier isotopes are produced only by decay of heavier nuclei [4].

REFERENCES

[1]. Hofmann, S.; et al. (1996). “The new element 112”. Zeitschrift für Physik A. 354 (1): 229–230. doi:10.1007/BF02769517.

[2]. Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). “Transactinides and the future elements”. In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean. The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN1-4020-3555-1.

[3]. Barber, R. C.; et al. (2011). “Discovery of the elements with atomic numbers greater than or equal to 113” (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 83 (7): 5–7. doi:10.1351/PAC-REP-10-05-01.

Configuration

[4]. Holden, N. E. (2004). “Table of the Isotopes”. In D. R. Lide. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). CRC Press. Section 11. ISBN978-0-8493-0485-9.

Copernicium Properties

Other Periodic Table Elements

Copernicium Electron Configuration

Copernicium
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Who Discovered Copernicium

The element 112, named Cn

Automatic translationCategory: matter and particles
Updated June 01, 2013

The element 112 discovered in Germany February 9, 1996, was officially named by the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) February 19, 2010. Its chemical symbol is Cn.
This, previously called 'Ununbium' is 277 times heavier than hydrogen and is called Copernicium, it has now been added to the periodic table.
On February 9, 1996, a beam of heavy ions accelerated in GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, collided with a stationary target.
Some nuclei of zinc beam merged with lead nuclei of the target, to a new unstable and radioactive transuranic element.
Alpha radioactivity detectors issued by a heavy nucleus, indicated that physicists element 277 times heavier than hydrogen had been produced for a split second before decaying into lighter nuclei.
Multiple times to ensure its existence, the analysis showed that this was the element 112.
February 19, 2010, IUPAC has Copernicium named in honor of the great Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543).
This completes the list transuranic elements such as the recent heavy synthetic bohrium (107), the hassium (108), the meitnerium (109), the darmstadtium (110) and roentgenium (111).

Since 1981, researchers at the GSI are talking about them for the creation of transuranic ranging from 107 to 111. The transuranic radioactive elements are highly volatile, with atomic number above 92. Goth annie lol.
Their lifetime is usually very short and separate plutonium and neptunium, they do not exist on Earth. Moreover, the plutonium and neptunium exist only infinitesimal quantities associated with the ore, rich in uranium.
Since the discovery of radioactivity, scientists fun to create heavier nuclei than the uranium.
The Copernicium is about 277 times heavier than hydrogen, which is the lightest element in the periodic table, used to classify items based on their chemical properties.
In 2010, the Copernicium is 'the heaviest element officially recognized by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).'
It was manufactured at the Centre for Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt (Germany) by the team of Professor Sigurd Hofmann. It was synthesized in a particle accelerator, creating collisions between atoms of zinc and lead.
The nuclei of zinc have, 30 protons and nuclei of lead, 82 protons. Thus the new atom has 112 protons, corresponding to the sum of the two elements combined.

Image: The heavy ion synchrotron at GSI (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung mbH). It is in this synchrotron as zinc and lead have formed during a few microseconds, the Copernicium. The GSI is a German laboratory research in nuclear physics and particle physics, based in Darmstadt.

Link between energy and mass

Do not imagine the proton, neutron, or other fixed object like a hadron A hadron is composed of subatomic particles assembled by the strong interaction. These particles are composed of quarks and / or anti-quarks and gluons..
One might think that a ball is electrically charged but it is a very inappropriate picture.
In a proton, there are quarks, antiquarks and gluons. The hadron containing more than 3 quarks antiquarks: what are the 'valence quarks'.
They give the baryon A baryon is in particle physics, a class of particles, whose best-known representatives are the proton and neutron. The term 'baryon' is derived from the Greek barys meaning 'heavy' and refers to the fact that baryons are generally heavier than other types of particles., its electric charge and other quantum numbers.
The other quarks are 'sea quarks antiquarks.'
Gluons are from 30 to 40% of the energy of the proton. Inside the closed field of the proton that is to say (10-15 meters), the quarks move freely.
Only when they tend to diverge as the forces are intensifying and prevent them from moving away.
This property is called 'asymptotic freedom'.
This freedom is a short feature of the gauge theory of color. Since they carry color charges, they circulate among the quarks, gluons are themselves sensitive to the strength of color.
Hadrons interact and form a kind of jelly increasingly rigid as the growing energy involved, which causes the confinement of quarks. More one examines finely the nucleon using the most energy particles and more there are a complex mixture, consisting of quarks and antiquarks high mass.

So it should not imagine the proton, neutron, or any other hadron, as a fixed object, but dynamically as a kind of magician's hat where there are more things that s 'there is aggressively looking for.
Quarks are the basic constituents of matter and the forces acting through the carrier particles, moving between the particles of matter. Forces are also distinguished by different intensities.
What you should remember is that energy and mass are two sides of the same phenomenon, according to Einstein's famous equation (E = mc2), the mass can be transformed into energy and vice versa.
In the LHC, such a transformation occurs at each collision. Because of this equivalence, mass and energy can be measured with the same units.
On the scale of particle physics, this is the électron-volt. The grand unification of elementary particles and their fundamental interactions has long been concerned the physics community.
Einstein spent unsuccessfully the last thirty years of his life to the quest for a unified theory of electromagnetism to gravitation.
Today, the objective is far from being reached.

Image: Simulation of collision of particles showing a multitude of complex particles, unstable.

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