Periodic table of chemical elements with pictures and detailed chemical properties for each element. Hydrogen is a chemical element with atomic number 1 which means there are 1 protons and 1 electrons in the atomic structure.The chemical symbol for Hydrogen is H. With a standard atomic weight of circa 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.
Titanium is found in the middle of the periodic table. The periodic table is a chart that shows how chemical elements are related to one another. Titanium is a transition metal and is part of Group 4 (IVB).
Titanium was one of the first elements to be discovered by modern chemists. The 'modern' chemistry period begins after the middle of the eighteenth century. That period is chosen because it is the first time that the basic concepts of modern chemistry were developed.
A look at what EDAX's EBSD and WDS products can detect in regards to Titanium.
Titanium was discovered by English clergyman William Gregor (1761-1817). Gregor studied minerals as a hobby. He did not think of himself as a chemist, and yet his research led to the discovery of titanium.
Group 4 (IVB)
Titanium and its compounds have become very important in modern society. The metal is widely used in a variety of alloys. An alloy is made by melting and mixing two or more metals. The mixture has properties different from those of the individual metals. Titanium alloys are used in aircraft, spacecraft, jewelry, clocks, armored vehicles, and in the construction of buildings.
Discovery and naming
Gregor discovered titanium while he was studying a mineral found near his home. He was able to identify most of the mineral, but he found one part that he could not identify. He decided it was a new substance, but did not continue his research. Instead, he wrote a report and left it to professional chemists to find out more about the material.
Today, we know that the material Gregor found is a mineral called ilmenite. Ilmenite is made of iron, oxygen, and titanium. Its chemical formula is FeTiO 3 . Even though Gregor did not complete his study of ilmenite, he is usually given credit for the discovery of titanium.
Surprisingly, most chemists paid little attention to Gregor's report. Four years later, German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743-1817) decided to study ilmenite. Klaproth believed that Gregor had been correct and that ilmenite truly did contain a new element. Klaproth suggested the name titanium, in honor of the Titans. The Titans were mythical giants who ruled the Earth until they were overthrown by the Greek gods. Klaproth reminded everyone that Gregor should receive credit for having discovered the element.
Klaproth was never able to produce pure titanium from ilmenite, only titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). It was not until 1825 that even impure titanium metal was produced. Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) accomplished this task.
Pure titanium metal can exist as a dark gray, shiny metal or as a dark gray powder. It has a melting point of 1,677°C (3,051°F) and a boiling point of 3,277°C (5,931°F). Its density is 4.6 grams per cubic centimeter. Titanium metal is brittle when cold and can break apart easily at room temperature. At higher temperatures, it becomes malleable and ductile. Malleable means capable of being hammered into thin sheets. Ductile means capable of being drawn into thin wires.
Titanium has an interesting physical property. Small amounts of oxygen or nitrogen, make it much stronger.
In general, titanium tends to be quite unreactive. It does not combine with oxygen at room temperature. It also resists attack by acids, chlorine, and other corrosive agents. A corrosive agent is a material that tends to vigorously react or eat away at something.
Titanium becomes more reactive at high temperatures. It can actually catch fire when heated in the presence of oxygen.
Occurrence in nature
Titanium is a very common element. It is the ninth most abundant element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance is estimated to be about 0.63 percent. That places titanium just above hydrogen and just below potassium among elements present in the earth.
Titanium metal is brittle when cold and can break apart easily at room temperature.
The most common mineral sources of titanium are ilmenite, rutile, and titanite. Titanium is also obtained from iron ore slags. Slag is an earthy material that floats to the top when iron is removed from iron ore.
Titanium Periodic Table Symbol
Five naturally occurring isotopes of titanium exist. They are titanium-46, titanium-47, titanium-48, titanium-49, and titanium-50. The most abundant of these is titanium-48. It makes up about 75 percent of all titanium found in nature. Isotopes are two or more forms of an element. Isotopes differ from each other according to their mass number. The number written to the right of the element's name is the mass number. The mass number represents the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of the element. The number of protons determines the element, but the number of neutrons in the atom of any one element can vary. Each variation is an isotope.
Four artificial isotopes of titanium have also been made. These are all radioactive. A radioactive isotope is one that breaks apart and gives off some form of radiation. Radioactive isotopes are produced when very small particles are fired at atoms. These particles stick in the atoms and make them radioactive.
None of the radioactive isotopes of titanium has any commercial applications. Championship thresh.
Complete Periodic Table With Everything
The methods used to obtain titanium are similar to those used for other metals. One way to make the metal is to heat one of its compounds with another metal, such as magnesium:
Another approach is to pass an electric current through a molten (melted) compound of titanium:
By far the most important use of titanium is in making alloys. The metal is most commonly added to steel. It adds strength to the steel and makes it more resistant to corrosion (rusting). Titanium also has another advantage in alloys. Its density is less than half that of steel. So a steel alloy containing titanium weighs less, pound-for-pound, than does the pure steel alloy.
These properties explain why titanium steel is so desirable for spacecraft and aircraft applications. In fact, about 65 percent of all titanium sold is used in aerospace applications. Titanium alloys are used in the airframes (bodies) and engines of aircraft and spacecraft. Other uses are in armored vehicles, armored vests, and helmets, in jewelry, eyeglasses, bicycles, golf clubs, and other sports equipment; in specialized dental implants; in power-generating plants and other types of factories; and in roofs, faces, columns, walls, ceilings, and other parts of buildings.
Titanium alloys have also become popular in body implants, such as artificial hips and knees. These alloys are light, strong, long-lasting, and biocompatible. Biocompatible means that the alloy does not cause a reaction when placed into the body.
Titanium tetrachloride combines with moisture in the air to form a dense white cloud. Skywriters use titanium tetrachloride to form letters in the sky.
The most important compound of titanium is titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ). In 1996, 1,230,000 metric tons of this compound was produced in the United States. Titanium dioxide is a dense white powder with excellent hiding power. That term means that anything beneath it cannot be seen well. This property accounts for the major use of titanium dioxide: making whitepaint. Titanium dioxide paint is a good choice for painting over old wallpaper or dark paints because it covers so well. In 1996, about half of the titanium dioxide produced in the United States was used in paints.
About 40 percent of all titanium dioxide used in the United States goes into paper and plastic materials. Titanium dioxide gives 'body' to paper and makes it opaque (unable to see through it). Other uses are in floor coverings, fabrics and textiles, ceramics, ink, roofing materials, and catalysts in industrial operations. A catalyst is a substance used to speed up or slow down a chemical reaction without undergoing any change itself.
Another interesting compound is titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ). Titanium tetrachloride is a clear, colorless liquid when kept in a sealed container. However, it changes dramatically when exposed to the air. It combines with moisture in the air to form a dense white cloud. Skywriters use titanium tetrachloride to form letters in the sky. The compound is also used to make smokescreens. Smoke effects used in motion pictures and television programs sometimes are produced with titanium tetrachloride.
Titanium appears to have no harmful effects on plants or humans. It has also not been shown to have any role in maintaining good health.
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Titanium Periodic Table Of ElementsThe Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
Titanium (Ti), chemical element, a silvery gray metal of Group 4 (IVb) of the periodic table. Titanium is a lightweight, high-strength, low-corrosion structural metal and is used in alloy form for parts in high-speed aircraft. A compound of titanium and oxygen was discovered (1791) by the English chemist and mineralogist William Gregor and independently rediscovered (1795) and named by the German chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth.
|melting point||1,660 °C (3,020 °F)|
|boiling point||3,287 °C (5,949 °F)|
|density||4.5 g/cm3 (20 °C)|
|oxidation states||+2, +3, +4|
Occurrence, properties, and uses
Titanium is widely distributed and constitutes 0.44 percent of Earth’s crust. The metal is found combined in practically all rocks, sand, clay, and other soils. It is also present in plants and animals, natural waters and deep-sea dredgings, and meteorites and stars. The two prime commercial minerals are ilmenite and rutile. The metal was isolated in pure form (1910) by the metallurgist Matthew A. Hunter by reducing titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) with sodium in an airtight steel cylinder.
The preparation of pure titanium is difficult because of its reactivity. Titanium cannot be obtained by the common method of reducing the oxide with carbon because a very stable carbide is readily produced, and, moreover, the metal is quite reactive toward oxygen and nitrogen at elevated temperatures. Therefore, special processes have been devised that, after 1950, changed titanium from a laboratory curiosity to an important commercially produced structural metal. In the Kroll process, one of the ores, such as ilmenite (FeTiO3) or rutile (TiO2), is treated at red heat with carbon and chlorine to yield titanium tetrachloride, TiCl4, which is fractionally distilled to eliminate impurities such as ferric chloride, FeCl3. The TiCl4 is then reduced with molten magnesium at about 800 °C (1,500 °F) in an atmosphere of argon, and metallic titanium is produced as a spongy mass from which the excess of magnesium and magnesium chloride can be removed by volatilization at about 1,000 °C (1,800 °F). The sponge may then be fused in an atmosphere of argon or helium in an electric arc and be cast into ingots. On the laboratory scale, extremely pure titanium can be made by vaporizing the tetraiodide, TiI4, in very pure form and decomposing it on a hot wire in vacuum. (For treatment of the mining, recovery, and refining of titanium, seetitanium processing. For comparative statistical data on titanium production, seemining.)
Pure titanium is ductile, about half as dense as iron and less than twice as dense as aluminum; it can be polished to a high lustre. The metal has a very low electrical and thermal conductivity and is paramagnetic (weakly attracted to a magnet). Two crystal structures exist: below 883 °C (1,621 °F), hexagonal close-packed (alpha); above 883 °C, body-centred cubic (beta). Natural titanium consists of five stable isotopes: titanium-46 (8.0 percent), titanium-47 (7.3 percent), titanium-48 (73.8 percent), titanium-49 (5.5 percent), and titanium-50 (5.4 percent).
Titanium Periodic Table Atomic Mass
Titanium Periodic Table Picture
Titanium is important as an alloying agent with most metals and some nonmetals. Some of these alloys have much higher tensile strengths than does titanium itself. Titanium has excellent corrosion-resistance in many environments because of the formation of a passive oxide surface film. No noticeable corrosion of the metal occurs despite exposure to seawater for more than three years. Titanium resembles other transition metals such as iron and nickel in being hard and refractory. Its combination of high strength, low density (it is quite light in comparison to other metals of similar mechanical and thermal properties), and excellent corrosion-resistance make it useful for many parts of aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and ships. It also is used in prosthetic devices, because it does not react with fleshy tissue and bone. Titanium has also been utilized as a deoxidizer in steel and as an alloying addition in many steels to reduce grain size, in stainless steel to reduce carbon content, in aluminum to refine grain size, and in copper to produce hardening.
Although at room temperatures titanium is resistant to tarnishing, at elevated temperatures it reacts with oxygen in the air. This is no detriment to the properties of titanium during forging or fabrication of its alloys; the oxide scale is removed after fabrication. In the liquid state, however, titanium is very reactive and reduces all known refractories.
Titanium is not attacked by mineral acids at room temperature or by hot aqueous alkali; it dissolves in hot hydrochloric acid, giving titanium species in the +3 oxidation state, and hot nitric acid converts it into a hydrous oxide that is rather insoluble in acid or base. The best solvents for the metal are hydrofluoric acid or other acids to which fluoride ions have been added; such mediums dissolve titanium and hold it in solution because of the formation of fluoro complexes.
Titanium Periodic Table Square
Titanium Periodic Table
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